Document-32.    


BOBHSOC

The North East Diaries
August 15th in the North of England

This was the day the Luftwaffe attempted tosaturate the British Defences.  One of the many areas of attack wasLuftflotte 5's flank  attack on the east Coast, they met heavy oppositionand suffered serious casualties, most of whom fell into the North Sea. Luftflotte 5 never attempted a flank attack again.  The man to whomthe North-East is indebted for the successful defence of this area hasnot had very much in the way of recognition, he was the Air Officer Commanding,13 Group, Air Vice-Marshal Richard Ernest Saul, DFC. 

Despite enthusiastic claims made by the RAF(182 shot down), the true total of German losses was still a crushing blowto them.  Over the whole country, Seventy-five lost and a furtherfifteen returning to base damaged.  They also lost a further threeplanes and damaged another five in accidents. 

The majority of people living in the North-Easton this August day did not really know much about the events of the day,they just knew about the happenings in their own little part of the world,Miss Flagg's diary gives a true account of the day as the man or in thiscase, woman in the street saw it.  # The "Battle of Tyneside", ina way the prototype for the "Battle of Britain", did not affect the town(South Shields); indeed, many people had very little idea how momentousan occasion it was.  The roar of planes and heavy gun-fire were heard;there were occasional glimpses of aircraft attacking or taking evasiveaction but bombs were only dropped in the harbour, on the cliffs and atsea.  Four High Explosive bombs fell at Salmon's Hall and Frenchman'sBay.  A Coast guard on duty had a narrow escape, one bomb fallingon each side of his cabin which was seriously damaged.  No casualties.# 

The following is an account of the North-East'spart in that day, as described in the book Narrow Margin by Derek Woodand Derek Dempster:

"Then followed an attack which was to be the mostinteresting of the whole day.  Banking on tactical surprise and convenientlyforgetting the radar chain, Luftflotte 5 launched two simultaneous thrustsin the north and the north-east.  They expected little oppositionand their reception came as a painful surprise."

"At 8 minutes past 12 radar began to plota formation of twenty plus opposite the Firth of Forth at a range of over90 miles.  As the raid drew closer the estimates went up to thirtyin three sections flying SW towards Tynemouth."

"At Watnall the approach of 13 Groups firstdaylight raid was watched on the operations table with particular interest. With an hours warning the controller was able to put squadrons in an excellentposition to attack, with 72 Squadron Spitfires in the path of the enemyoff the Farne Islands and 605 Squadron over Tyneside.  Nos 79 and607 were also put up, but while the latter was in the path of the raid,No 79 was too far north."

"No 72 Squadron from Acklington was the firstto make contact and it came as a distinct shock when the thirty materialisedas I and III/KG 26 with sixty-five Heinkel 111s, and the entire I/ZG 76from Stavanger with thirty-four Me 110s.  After a brief pause in whichto survey the two massive groups flying in vic formation, Squadron-LeaderE. Graham led No 72 straight in from the flank, one section attacking thefighters, and the rest the bombers."

"The Me 110s formed defensive circles, whilethe Heinkels split up. Some of them jettisoned their bombs and headed backto Norway, leaving several of their number in the sea.  The separateparts of the formation finally reached the coast, one south of Sunderlandand the other south of Acklington.  No 79 intercepted the northerngroup over the water, while a flight from No 605 Squadron caught it overland. Most of the HEs fell harmlessly in the sea."

"The group off Sunderland found Nos 607 and41 waiting for it and they too bombed to little effect, apart from wreckinghouses.  The raiders turned back to Norway, the Me 110s having alreadydeparted some minutes before.  Of a total force of about 100, eightbombers and seven fighters were destroyed and several more damaged withoutBritish loss.  The airfield targets such as Usworth, Linton on Ouseand Dishforth went unscathed.  One Staffel of III/KG 26 lost fiveof its nine aircraft in the course of the fighting."

"Farther south, an unescorted formation of50 Ju 88s from I, II and III/KG 30, based on Aalborg, was heading in toNo 12 Group off Flamborough Head.  This group were detailed to wipeDriffield out as a bomber base.  Full radar warning was given and73 Squadron Hurricanes, 264 Squadron Defiants and 616 Squadron Spitfireswere sent to patrol the area, the force being supplemented later by Blenheimsfrom 219 Squadron in 13 Group."

"Both 616 and a flight of No 73 engaged, butthe enemy split into eight sections.  Some turned north to bomb Bridlingtonwhere houses were hit and an ammunition dump blown up.  The main force,however, flew to the No 4 Group Bomber Station at Driffield, Yorkshire,where 169 bombs of various calibres were dropped on the airfield, fourhangars were damaged and many other buildings were either bombed or rakedwith cannon fire, twelve Whitleys were destroyed and seventeen personnelwere killed.  The damage to the airfield was such, that it was non-operationalfor the rest of the year.

Heavy anti-aircraft fire was directed againstthe bombers and one was brought down.  Altogether, six of KG 30s Ju88s were shot down, representing about 10% of the force sent over."

"In all, the northern attackers lost sixteenbombers out of a serviceable Luftflotte 5 force of one hundred and twenty-three,and seven fighters of the thirty-four available".

 This account of the days events have beentaken from the book 'Action Stations. Vol 7'. by David J. Smith, in thesection that deals with Usworth airfield:
"The airfield at Usworthnear Boldon was a training station for most of its wartime career, despitethis it was singled out for a major Luftwaffe attack during the Battleof Britain.  On August 15th 1940, a large force of Heinkel He 111sof KG 26, inadequately escorted by Messerschmitt Bf 110s of ZG 76 weredetected approaching the east coast.  Spitfires of 72 Squadron, Acklingtonmet them off the Farne Islands and although heavily outnumbered, claimedseveral destroyed.

The German formation then split into two,one portion making for Tyneside and the other turned south.  The secondAcklington Squadron, No 79, encountered the northern group just off thecoast and a dogfight with the escort ensued. Reforming, the Hurricanescaught up with the bombers who were approaching Newcastle on their wayto their primary target which appeared to be Usworth airfield.

Harried by the Tyne guns and more Hurricanesfrom Drem airfield near Edinburgh, the Heinkels made off scattering theirbombs to little effect, leaving Usworth untouched.  The southerlyforce, attacked by 14 and 607 Squadrons from Catterick and Usworth, jettisonedtheir bombs in the region of Seaham Harbour.  The enemy lost eightbombers and seven fighters and since no military target was hit, it couldbe said to have been a highly successful action on the part of 13 Groupand the AA guns".

In the same book, the section that deals withAcklington airfield describes it thus:

"On August 16th 1940, believingthat all our fighter squadrons had been committed to the struggle in thesouth, the Luftwaffe sent about one hundred bombers with an escort of fortyMesserschmitt Bf 110s against Tyneside. Unfortunately for them, severalHurricane and Spitfire squadrons had been withdrawn from the battle torest in, and simultaneously guard the north."

"The pilots had protested that they were notat all tired and then this unexpected consolation came upon the scene. Nearly thirty enemy aircraft were shot down, many by Acklington based aircraft,for a British loss of two pilots injured.  Never again was a daylightraid attempted, outside the range of the best fighter protection and hencefortheverywhere north of the Wash was safe by day".

The New English Library edition of The Battleof Britain gives the following account of today's events ... Fine and warmanticyclonic weather.  All three Luftflotten in maximum effort againstairfields, radar stations and factories including heavy attack by KG 26and ZG 76 (Luftflotte 5) in the Newcastle area. RAF air station at Driffieldbombed and ten Whitley bombers destroyed on ground.  Other attacksleave Dishforth, Linton on Ouse and Usworth undamaged.  Bridlingtonammunition dump blown up. ..... This day a turning point: its losses convincethe Luftwaffe that air superiority is essential before all-out bombingcan be successful.  It also marks the virtual end of Luftflotte 5'soffensive usefulness, so sparing the north such heavy attacks in future;and the beginning of the end of the Ju 87's usefulness as a dive-bomberand that of the Bf 110 as an escort fighter.  Losses: Luftwaffe: seventy-five,Fighter Command: thirty-four.  It must be pointed out that the finalremarks and figures appertain to the whole country. 

This account of the days happenings, are extractsthat come from Basil Collier's book 'The Battle of Britain'.  Thebook also gives an inkling of the flair and boldness of Air Vice-MarshalSaul's tactics, plus a little praise for the outcome which saved the North-Eastfrom a lot of attention in the days of war, yet to come. 

"The main feature of the second days (August15) programme was that, for the first time, fairly weighty attacks acrossthe North Sea were to be made by General Stumpff's Luftflotte 5 in concertwith further attacks in the south by Kesselring and Sperrle.  Thiswas an extremely risky innovation .... but he could scarcely refuse thepart assigned to him.  His orders were attack aerodromes near Newcastleand in Yorkshire, and he had roughly sixty-five Heinkel 111s, fifty Junkers88s and thirty-five Messerschmitt 110s with which to do it.  The 110swere far too few to escort a hundred and fifteen bombers, and had barelythe endurance to cross the North Sea in both directions.
Making the best of a bad job, he fitted themwith supplementary fuel-tanks; ordered them to fly without rear-gunnersto compensate for the added weight; sent them to Newcastle with the Heinkels;and ordered the faster and more modern Junkers 88s to fly to Yorkshireunescorted.
It was a desperate gamble, but it might conceivablycome off.

The RDF stations on the east coast pickedup the Heinkels and their escort when they were still far out to sea. Their first estimate was that more than twenty aircraft were approaching,but later they raised the figure to more than thirty, and finally to morethan fifty.  The stations said, correctly, that the aircraft wereflying in three distinct formations. 

Air Vice-Marshal R.E. Saul DFC commandingNo 13 Group, was less well known to the public than his colleagues to thesouth, whose forces were in the thick of the fighting through-out the battle.August 15 gave him his first chance of countering a big attack in daylight. In spite of the enormous area he had to cover, he made such good use ofit that it also proved to be his last, for the Germans never repeated theexperiment. 

Saul's position at noon, when the Heinkelsof Kampfgeschwader 26 and the Messerschmitt 110s of Zerstorergeschwader76 were first detected miles away over the North Sea, was that he had threesquadrons of Spitfires, one of Hurricanes and one of Blenheims in the twosectors which covered the north of England.  Of the remaining eightsquadrons which made up the resources of his group, four and a half werefar away in Northern Ireland, Shetland and the north of Scotland. To supplement the five squadrons he had immediately at hand, he could count only on two and a half squadrons of Hurricanes near the Firth ofForth and a squadron of Defiants near the Clyde.  The Blenheims wereno match even for long-range fighters, while the Defiants had sufferedcrippling losses in their last encounter with the Germans and were at leasta hundred miles from any objective which Stumpff was likely to attack. 

Saul began by sending one of the four single-seatersquadrons close at hand to meet the enemy well off the coast.  Atthe same time he brought down a squadron of Hurricanes from the Firth ofForth to patrol the Tyneside - an almost unprecedented step.  As thethreat became more imminent he added the remaining three single-seatersquadrons immediately available, keeping back only the Blenheims, the Defiants,and a squadron and a half of Hurricanes near the Forth.  By this timecorrectly appreciating that he had the greater part of Stumpff's resourceson his front, he nevertheless responded to a call for reinforcement fromNo 12 Group, on his southern flank, by parting with the Blenheims, hisonly uncommitted squadron within reach.  Like Brand (Air Vice-MarshalSir Q. Brand AOC of 10 Group) in face of Sperrle's threat on the 13th,at least he ran little risk of being caught by Stumpff with his aircrafton the ground. 

Meanwhile, to seaward of the Farne Islands,the Spitfires of No 72 Squadron from Acklington were closing with Stumpff'sescorted bombers at the rate of something like eight miles per minute. In the absence of a squadron- leader, they were led by Flight-LieutenantEdward Graham, who thus stepped into the place of honour in one of themost spectacularly successful air combats of the war. 

Thirty miles off the coast, the squadron sightedthe enemy - a hundred aircraft to their eleven.  As the RDF stationshad predicted, the Germans were flying in three formations - the bombersahead and the fighters in two waves stepped up to the rear. Misled by thesupplementary fuel tanks slung below the fighters, which looked like bombs,Graham and his pilots took the nearer wave for Junkers 88s. 

Stumpff's armada was so vast in comparisonwith Graham's little force that he hesitated for a moment, uncertain atwhat point and from what direction to attack it.  Apparently unableto bear the suspense, one of his pilots was asked whether he had seen the enemy.With a slight stutter which was habitual, he replied " Of course I've seenthe b-b-b-bastards, I'm trying to w-w-w-work out what to do." The reply was tobecame famous through-out Fighter Command. 

He did not hesitate for long, The Spitfireshad had plenty of time to gain height during their long flight from thecoast, and were about three thousand feet above the enemy's mean height. Making the most of his advantage and of what corresponded to the weather-gauge,he decided to lead the squadron in a diving attack from up-sun, leavingeach pilot free to choose his own target.  Two-thirds attacked bombersor supposed bombers, the remaining third the second wave of fighters, correctlyidentified as 110s. 

The results were startling.  Jettisoningtheir external tanks, some of the 110s formed the usual defensive circle,while others dived almost to sea level and were last seen heading east. The bombers, less an indeterminate number destroyed by Graham's squadron,then split into two formations, each accompanied by some of the remainingfighters. One formation headed for Tyneside, apparently with the intentionof bombing Saul's sector station at Usworth; the rest turned south-easttowards two aerodromes at Linton on Ouse and Dishforth which they had beenordered to attack. 

The first formation, engaged successivelyby the remaining squadron from Acklington, the Tyne guns and some of theHurricanes which had come south from Scotland, dropped most of their bombsin the sea.  The second, engaged by a squadron of Spitfires from Catterick,a Hurricane squadron from Usworth and the Tees guns, dropped theirs almostas ineffectively near Sunderland and Seaham Harbour.  From first tolast Saul's fighters, backed by the guns of the 7th Anti-Aircraft Divisionunder Major-General R.B. Pargiter, destroyed eight Heinkels and seven 110swithout suffering a single casualty.  It is known that in additionto the enemy losses reported in this diary during this period, many Germanaircraft got back to their bases with battle damage varying from a fewbullet holes to a total write-off on crash landing. 

While these excitements were at their height,the fifty Junkers 88s which made up the rest of Stumpff's bomber forcewere speeding across the North Sea towards their objective in South Yorkshire,a bomber aerodrome at Great Driffield.  About a quarter of an hourbefore the first shot was fired off the Farne Islands, warning was receivedin the operations room of No 12 Group at Watnall that German aircraft wereapproaching the front of the group's Church Fenton sector, but were stilla long way out to sea." .... Here the direct quotes from the story end,but a resume of the rest of the action in the north, is that .... Air Vice-Marshal Saul was even able to lend No 12 Groups AOC - Air Vice-MarshalLeigh-Mallory - his squadron of Blenheims to help in the defence of theairfield at Driffield which was bombed, as was Bridlington.  The Blenheimswere lent even though Air Vice-Marshal Leigh-Mallory had squadrons nearerto him available to fight, than Air Vice-Marshal Saul had at the beginningof the action. 

Luftflotte 5 was finished in the daylightbattle, apart from reconnaissance, and most of its bomber strength andsome of its fighters were transferred to Luftflotte 2, based in France,towards the end of August. 

An extract from a German airman's accountof the attack on Driffield airfield is given below, it is by OberleutnantRudolf Kratz flying a Junkers Ju 88 of Stab/KG 30 stationed at Aalborgin occupied Denmark and it is taken from the book 'The Lufwaffe in theBattle of Britain' by Armand van Ishoven:

"The coast.  The initialpoint.  No time left for thinking - there lay England, the lion'sden.  But the eagles were going to attack the lion in his lair andwound him grievously.

"Fighters to starboard..." Three specks overflewus, disappeared to the rear, and after a diving turn, hung behind us." "Your turn now". The words disappeared in the rattle of our machine guns. In short bursts the volleys flew towards the first fighter.  He turnedaway and the second one took his place.  This one's fire is ineffectiveas well and both passed below and were shot at by our ventral gunner. Like hornets they swooshed through our formation, the roundels on theirfuselage looking like eyes.

"Five fighters to port above." reported thewireless operator calmly. "Dammit," the pilot said, but did not get agitated. We kept on flying towards our target.  Staring before us we triedto locate the airfield amidst the ragged clouds.' "There, the field, belowus." ......

"The target at last - the fighters were beginningto be a real nuisance.  The time had come now.  I did not givea single Pfennig for the life of those below - drop the HEs, away withthe blessing!  The aircraft went into a dive, speed rapidly buildingup, and the wind roared and howled around us. The hangars grew and grew. They were still standing.  The AA guns were firing away at us, butthey were too late.

'A jolt - the bombs were free, the steel bodiesout whistling down. Below all hell was let loose.  Like an inferno,steel hit steel, and stones.  Bomb upon bomb exploded, destroyingand tearing apart what they hit.  Hangar walls and roofs crumpledlike tin sheets, pieces flying through the air.  Aircraft were shatteredby a hail of splinters.  Barracks tumbled down, enormous smoke anddust clouds rose like mushrooms.  Here and there explosions and flamesshot up.  The airfield and the hangars were already badly hit butbombs kept falling from the bombers that followed us, kept raining downin a horrible shower.  Fire from exploding ammunition burst upwardslike torches. The English AA artillery had been eliminated, their firingpositions turned into craters.

"The sun shone into our cabin.  The enemyfighters had been got rid of.  Below us lay the wide sea.  Howbeautiful the Earth can be. Hands loosened their grip on the machine guns. What happened just a few minutes ago lay behind us and we relaxed. The engines were running evenly, we were flying home.  The airfielddidn't exist any more; that was the result."

Oberleutnant Kratz who wrote the above report(from which the extract is taken) had joined the Reichswehr in 1934 andhad transferred to the Luftwaffe the following year.  In 1937 he hadbeen trained in blind flying, while on Lufthansa routes, as did so manyLuftwaffe pilots at that time.  It was a perfect camouflage. Thirty-nine years after writing the report, he had become a dentist inBad Salzuflen and he remembered: 'I wrote the report for my own entertainment,but it got in front of Oblt Loebel who gave it to a Kriegsberichter. From there it found its way into the Jahrbuch of the Luftwaffe.  TodayI find it too emphatic and bombastic.  But then those times were filledwith heroism, the call of duty and big words. 

Having read what I believe to be the wholereport and in view of the heavy losses incurred by KG30 on this day, Ifind it surprising that no mention is made of German casualties in it whatsoever. 

A Heinkel He 111H from 1/KG26, shot down duringa sortie to attack Middlesbrough, crashed into the sea at 13.45 off DruridgeBay / Hemscott Hill, four German airmen brought ashore at Amble, part ofenemy aircraft found near Clifton railway crossing.  The aircraftwas lost. 

Five Heinkel He 111Hs from 8/KG26 were lostoff the North-East coast during a sortie to Dishforth airfield.  Allof the crews were listed as killed or missing, and the aircraft lost. They were all presumed to have been shot down by RAF fighters. 

A 6th Heinkel He 111H from 8/KG26 was alsoshot down by the RAF and crashed into the North Sea.  One crewmanwas killed, the rest of the crew were rescued by a German Naval vesselincluding an injured man. 

A 7th Heinkel He 111H from 8/KG26 was shotdown by fighters on a sortie to bomb Dishforth aerodrome.  It crashedinto the sea, at 14.00, 30 miles off Middlesbrough.  The crew wascaptured unhurt. 

Two Junkers Ju 88Cs from I/KG30 failed toreturn from a mission to bomb Driffield aerodrome, one of them was interceptedand shot down at 13.30.  Nothing is known about the attack on theother.  The crews and aircraft listed as lost. 

A Junkers Ju 88A from 3/KG30 was shot downwhilst on a sortie over Flamborough Head , it crash-landed at 13.25 atHamilton Hill Farm, Barmston, near Bridlington.  The crew were capturedunhurt.  The aircraft a write-off. 

A Junkers Ju 88 from 4/KG30 was shot downwhilst on a sortie to bomb Driffield aerodrome, It crashed and burnt outat 13.30 at Hunmanby near Filey.  The crew were all killed. The aircraft a write-off. 

Of three Junkers Ju 88s of III/KG30, one wasshot down and crashed into the sea, the four man NCO crew killed and theaircraft lost - the second crash landed in Holland with one crewman injuredand the aircraft damaged but repairable - the third crashed on landingat Aalborg-West following operations over the east coast of England andan attack by RAF fighters.  The crew were unhurt but the aircraftwas 75% damaged. 

A Junkers Ju 88 from 7/KG30 was shot downwhilst on a mission to bomb Driffield aerodrome, it force landed near Hornbyat 13.30.  One crewman was killed, the other three were captured. The aircraft was a write-off. 

Another Junkers Ju 88 from 7/KG30, briefedto attack the airfield at Driffield was shot down by RAF fighters. One of the crewmen listed as killed and the other three listed as missing. The aircraft was a write-off. 

A Messerschmitt Bf 110C from Stab/ZG76, lastseen in combat with RAF fighters, presumed shot down into the sea. The crew listed as missing and the aircraft lost. 

A Messerschmitt 110D from Stab I/ZG76, failedto return from a sortie to the east coast of England off or near Newcastle. Both crew and aircraft lost. 

Another Messerschmitt 110D from Stab I/ZG76piloted by Hauptmann Restemeyer, the Gruppenkommandeur of 1/ZG76 was killedduring combat with Spitfires of 72 Squadron, whilst on a sortie to theeast coast of England, the aircraft crashed into the sea off the Durhamcoast.  The other member of the crew, Hauptmann Hartwich was alsolost.  Hauptmann Restemeyer gained fame when together with two otherLuftwaffe pilots, he had won first place in the International Alpine Rallyfor the formation flying of military aircraft at the Zurich/Dubendorf flyingmeet in 1937.  The three of them were flying the then sensationalnew Messerschmitt Bf 109s. 

A Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 1/ZG76 was shotdown and crashed at Streatlam near Barnard Castle at 13.36.  The aircraftwas destroyed, the crew were captured unhurt. 

13.36..  Steathlam..  Enemy planecrashed at Steathlam near to site of New Military Camp.  Both occupantsof plane conveyed to Barnard Castle Police Station.  When plane crashedan explosion occurred and a workman on the site received slight injuries. 

A Messerschmitt Bf 110D from Stab 2/ZG76 wasshot down whilst on escort duty for bombers attacking East Coast airfields. It crashed into the sea off Northumberland at 13.00.  One crewmanwas captured, the other was missing. 

Another Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 2/ZG76was severely damaged by fighters during the action over the North Sea,off the east coast, and crash landed at Esbjerg.  One crew memberkilled and one wounded, the aircraft a write-off. 

A Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 3/ZG76 was shotdown into the sea during a sortie off the Northumberland coast.  Thisis possibly the aircraft that at 13.00 crashed into the sea, three milesfrom Newbiggin, one mile east of Cambois.  Both crew members and theaircraft were lost. 

Another Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 3/ZG76returned to base after an attack by RAF fighters off the English east coast. One crewman was wounded and the aircraft repairable. 

A 3rd Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 3/ZG76 failedto return from an operational sortie to the English east coast, believedshot down into the sea.  The crew listed as missing and the aircraftas lost. 

A Hurricane from 79 Squadron based at Acklingtonairfield in Northumberland returned to base when damaged in combat withenemy aircraft off the North-East coast at 13.00.  The pilot was unhurtand the aircraft was repairable. 

A Blenheim from 219 Squadron based at Catterickairfield in Yorkshire was hit by return fire from enemy aircraft engagedoff Scarborough at 14.00, it crash-landed at Driffield.  SergeantO.E. Dupee was wounded in the right arm, Sergeant T.H. Banister was unhurt,the aircraft was damaged but repairable. 

The following three Hurricanes from 605 Squadronwere based at Drem, near Edinburgh, but were called up by Air Vice-MarshalSaul to assist in the defence of Tyneside which was undergoing a heavyenemy air attack at the time. 

1st: Force landed one mile from Usworth followingcombat off the East coast at 14.10.  The pilot, C.W. Passy was unhurtbut the aircraft was a write-off. 

2nd: Was hit by return fire from He 111s offNewcastle at 14.20. The pilot, Flight Lieutenant A.A. McKellar, who wasunhurt managed to fly the slightly damaged aircraft back to base. 

3rd: Force landed near Hart Railway Station,near West Hartlepool. Pilot Officer K.S. Law was badly injured and wasadmitted to West Hartlepool Hospital.  The aircraft was damaged butrepairable. 

A Hurricane from 616 Squadron based at Leconfieldairfield near Beverley in Yorkshire, landed heavily after a routine practiceflight at 17.35, wrecking the undercarriage, which was repairable. The pilot, Pilot Officer W.L.B. Walker was unhurt. 

A Hurricane from 302 Squadron based at Leconfieldairfield near Beverley in Yorkshire, caught fire on a training flight andcrashed attempting an emergency landing at Wheel.  Pilot Officer Glowczynskiwas admitted to Beverley Hospital, seriously burned.  The aircraftwas a write-off. 

Here are some of the many incident reportsof this momentous day - it must be remembered that the casualty figuresquoted in these reports may differ from the final number because the documentin question may have been the first of many concerning the same incident,or an injured person may have died in hospital some days later, they wouldbe included in the final summary compiled at a later date:- 

Bombs were reported to have been dropped onTynemouth in Northumberland, Sunderland, Cockfield, High Etherley, ToftHill, Woodside, Witton Park, Quarrington Hill, Cassop, Dawdon, Hawthorn,Easington Colliery, Thornley, and Cleadon all in Co Durham. 

Casualties included one person killed at BarnardCastle, one at Bishop Auckland,  one at Bridlington, one at Driffield,one at Durham, eleven at Easington, one at  Scarborough, eleven atSeaham and four at Sunderland. 

Northumberland..  Tynemouth Borough.. Five HE just below the Low Water Mark between Sharpness Point and the castle,and one just south of the North Pier. Some damage reported. 

13.40..  Sunderland..  NewcastleRoad - Denbigh Avenue - Sea Road - Tyzack's Yard bombed.  Casualties:-four killed, three seriously and eight slightly injured. 

12.47-13.30..  Co Durham..  Cockfield.. Twenty-eight HEs dropped in Cockfield district between Gibbsneese and Summerson'sQuarry.  170 windows in Cockfield were broken and 30 ceilings camedown.  A byre, a garage, and a small wooden tool shed were damaged. No casualties. 

Co Durham..  High Etherley, Toft Hill,Woodside and California.. Approximately sixty HEs and one hundred IBs weredropped in this district.  At High Etherley forty bombs were dropped;one killed a boy and injured another person.  The other bombs droppedin fields where sheep and a number of cattle were injured.  At California,Witton Park, one man was killed and four persons injured. 

13.30..  Co Durham..  QuarringtonHill and Cassop..  Fifty to sixty-eight enemy planes seen flying atgreat height over the Quarrington Hill and Cassop Village districts. Approximately sixty HEs and a hundred IBs were dropped.  A dairy atCassop, the wall of a sewerage bed at Cassop Vale, a water main and thewall of a Churchyard at Quarrington Hill were damaged.  IBs slightlydamaged four houses and a haystack was set on fire.  No serious damage. 

Co Durham..  Dawdon..  Eleven deadand forty injured..  Thirty HEs dropped.  In three adjoiningstreets in the village, eight houses were demolished and seventeen seriouslydamaged, most of the deaths occurred in Ilchester Street. 

Co Durham..  Hawthorn..  A directhit was made on an occupied house and a woman who was trapped in the househas not been found.  Another person was killed while riding a horse. An electric cable damaged at Hawthorn and the A.19 blocked N of the junctionwith the South Hetton road.  An enemy plane is reported to have beenshot down into the sea off the coast at Ryhope, but no trace of the survivorsor the plane has been found. 

Co Durham..  Easington Colliery.. Easington Colliery had approximately fifty houses damaged, twelve peoplewere killed, most of the deaths occurring in Station Road, thirty peoplewere injured. Little Thorpe Hospital, Easington also  suffered damageand ten persons were injured. 

Co Durham..  Thornley..  One deadand two injured..  A number of cattle were also killed.  Telephonecables were damaged near the Half-Way House, Thornley.  Five roadsblocked, all with the exception of the main road at Haswell Plough areopen to traffic. 

12.47-13.30..  Co Durham..  Cleadon.. Approximately forty-eight HEs and twenty IBs were dropped.  Sevenpersons were injured.  Five houses extensively damaged and twenty-fivehouses slightly damaged in this district.  A bull was killed on MoorFarm, Cleadon, and cow injured. Electric cables damaged and the road B.1299,from its junction with Underhill Road, Cleadon was temporarily blocked. 

Co Durham..  Washington..  A HurricaneFighter made a forced landing at Low Barmston Farm.  Pilot did notsustain injury - RAF Usworth informed. 

'SS Brixton' (1,557t) cargo ship, Sunderlandto London with a cargo of coal was sunk by a mine off Aldeburgh. 

Part of enemy aircraft found near CliftonRailway Crossing [NZ2182].


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