This was the day the Luftwaffe attempted to
saturate the British Defences. One of the many areas of attack was
Luftflotte 5's flank attack on the east Coast, they met heavy opposition
and suffered serious casualties, most of whom fell into the North Sea.
Luftflotte 5 never attempted a flank attack again. The man to whom
the North-East is indebted for the successful defence of this area has
not had very much in the way of recognition, he was the Air Officer Commanding,
13 Group, Air Vice-Marshal Richard Ernest Saul, DFC.
Despite enthusiastic claims made by the RAF
(182 shot down), the true total of German losses was still a crushing blow
to them. Over the whole country, Seventy-five lost and a further
fifteen returning to base damaged. They also lost a further three
planes and damaged another five in accidents.
The majority of people living in the North-East
on this August day did not really know much about the events of the day,
they just knew about the happenings in their own little part of the world,
Miss Flagg's diary gives a true account of the day as the man or in this
case, woman in the street saw it. # The "Battle of Tyneside", in
a way the prototype for the "Battle of Britain", did not affect the town
(South Shields); indeed, many people had very little idea how momentous
an occasion it was. The roar of planes and heavy gun-fire were heard;
there were occasional glimpses of aircraft attacking or taking evasive
action but bombs were only dropped in the harbour, on the cliffs and at
sea. Four High Explosive bombs fell at Salmon's Hall and Frenchman's
Bay. A Coast guard on duty had a narrow escape, one bomb falling
on each side of his cabin which was seriously damaged. No casualties.
The following is an account of the North-East's
part in that day, as described in the book Narrow Margin by Derek Wood
and Derek Dempster:
"Then followed an attack which was to be the most
interesting of the whole day. Banking on tactical surprise and conveniently
forgetting the radar chain, Luftflotte 5 launched two simultaneous thrusts
in the north and the north-east. They expected little opposition
and their reception came as a painful surprise."
This account of the days events have been
taken from the book 'Action Stations. Vol 7'. by David J. Smith, in the
section that deals with Usworth airfield:
"At 8 minutes past 12 radar began to plot
a formation of twenty plus opposite the Firth of Forth at a range of over
90 miles. As the raid drew closer the estimates went up to thirty
in three sections flying SW towards Tynemouth."
"At Watnall the approach of 13 Groups first
daylight raid was watched on the operations table with particular interest.
With an hours warning the controller was able to put squadrons in an excellent
position to attack, with 72 Squadron Spitfires in the path of the enemy
off the Farne Islands and 605 Squadron over Tyneside. Nos 79 and
607 were also put up, but while the latter was in the path of the raid,
No 79 was too far north."
"No 72 Squadron from Acklington was the first
to make contact and it came as a distinct shock when the thirty materialised
as I and III/KG 26 with sixty-five Heinkel 111s, and the entire I/ZG 76
from Stavanger with thirty-four Me 110s. After a brief pause in which
to survey the two massive groups flying in vic formation, Squadron-Leader
E. Graham led No 72 straight in from the flank, one section attacking the
fighters, and the rest the bombers."
"The Me 110s formed defensive circles, while
the Heinkels split up. Some of them jettisoned their bombs and headed back
to Norway, leaving several of their number in the sea. The separate
parts of the formation finally reached the coast, one south of Sunderland
and the other south of Acklington. No 79 intercepted the northern
group over the water, while a flight from No 605 Squadron caught it over
land. Most of the HEs fell harmlessly in the sea."
"The group off Sunderland found Nos 607 and
41 waiting for it and they too bombed to little effect, apart from wrecking
houses. The raiders turned back to Norway, the Me 110s having already
departed some minutes before. Of a total force of about 100, eight
bombers and seven fighters were destroyed and several more damaged without
British loss. The airfield targets such as Usworth, Linton on Ouse
and Dishforth went unscathed. One Staffel of III/KG 26 lost five
of its nine aircraft in the course of the fighting."
"Farther south, an unescorted formation of
50 Ju 88s from I, II and III/KG 30, based on Aalborg, was heading in to
No 12 Group off Flamborough Head. This group were detailed to wipe
Driffield out as a bomber base. Full radar warning was given and
73 Squadron Hurricanes, 264 Squadron Defiants and 616 Squadron Spitfires
were sent to patrol the area, the force being supplemented later by Blenheims
from 219 Squadron in 13 Group."
"Both 616 and a flight of No 73 engaged, but
the enemy split into eight sections. Some turned north to bomb Bridlington
where houses were hit and an ammunition dump blown up. The main force,
however, flew to the No 4 Group Bomber Station at Driffield, Yorkshire,
where 169 bombs of various calibres were dropped on the airfield, four
hangars were damaged and many other buildings were either bombed or raked
with cannon fire, twelve Whitleys were destroyed and seventeen personnel
were killed. The damage to the airfield was such, that it was non-operational
for the rest of the year.
Heavy anti-aircraft fire was directed against
the bombers and one was brought down. Altogether, six of KG 30s Ju
88s were shot down, representing about 10% of the force sent over."
"In all, the northern attackers lost sixteen
bombers out of a serviceable Luftflotte 5 force of one hundred and twenty-three,
and seven fighters of the thirty-four available".
"The airfield at Usworth
near Boldon was a training station for most of its wartime career, despite
this it was singled out for a major Luftwaffe attack during the Battle
of Britain. On August 15th 1940, a large force of Heinkel He 111s
of KG 26, inadequately escorted by Messerschmitt Bf 110s of ZG 76 were
detected approaching the east coast. Spitfires of 72 Squadron, Acklington
met them off the Farne Islands and although heavily outnumbered, claimed
The German formation then split into two,
one portion making for Tyneside and the other turned south. The second
Acklington Squadron, No 79, encountered the northern group just off the
coast and a dogfight with the escort ensued. Reforming, the Hurricanes
caught up with the bombers who were approaching Newcastle on their way
to their primary target which appeared to be Usworth airfield.
Harried by the Tyne guns and more Hurricanes
from Drem airfield near Edinburgh, the Heinkels made off scattering their
bombs to little effect, leaving Usworth untouched. The southerly
force, attacked by 14 and 607 Squadrons from Catterick and Usworth, jettisoned
their bombs in the region of Seaham Harbour. The enemy lost eight
bombers and seven fighters and since no military target was hit, it could
be said to have been a highly successful action on the part of 13 Group
and the AA guns".
In the same book, the section that deals with
Acklington airfield describes it thus:
"On August 16th 1940, believing
that all our fighter squadrons had been committed to the struggle in the
south, the Luftwaffe sent about one hundred bombers with an escort of forty
Messerschmitt Bf 110s against Tyneside. Unfortunately for them, several
Hurricane and Spitfire squadrons had been withdrawn from the battle to
rest in, and simultaneously guard the north."
"The pilots had protested that they were not
at all tired and then this unexpected consolation came upon the scene.
Nearly thirty enemy aircraft were shot down, many by Acklington based aircraft,
for a British loss of two pilots injured. Never again was a daylight
raid attempted, outside the range of the best fighter protection and henceforth
everywhere north of the Wash was safe by day".
The New English Library edition of The Battle
of Britain gives the following account of today's events ... Fine and warm
anticyclonic weather. All three Luftflotten in maximum effort against
airfields, radar stations and factories including heavy attack by KG 26
and ZG 76 (Luftflotte 5) in the Newcastle area. RAF air station at Driffield
bombed and ten Whitley bombers destroyed on ground. Other attacks
leave Dishforth, Linton on Ouse and Usworth undamaged. Bridlington
ammunition dump blown up. ..... This day a turning point: its losses convince
the Luftwaffe that air superiority is essential before all-out bombing
can be successful. It also marks the virtual end of Luftflotte 5's
offensive usefulness, so sparing the north such heavy attacks in future;
and the beginning of the end of the Ju 87's usefulness as a dive-bomber
and that of the Bf 110 as an escort fighter. Losses: Luftwaffe: seventy-five,
Fighter Command: thirty-four. It must be pointed out that the final
remarks and figures appertain to the whole country.
This account of the days happenings, are extracts
that come from Basil Collier's book 'The Battle of Britain'. The
book also gives an inkling of the flair and boldness of Air Vice-Marshal
Saul's tactics, plus a little praise for the outcome which saved the North-East
from a lot of attention in the days of war, yet to come.
"The main feature of the second days (August
15) programme was that, for the first time, fairly weighty attacks across
the North Sea were to be made by General Stumpff's Luftflotte 5 in concert
with further attacks in the south by Kesselring and Sperrle. This
was an extremely risky innovation .... but he could scarcely refuse the
part assigned to him. His orders were attack aerodromes near Newcastle
and in Yorkshire, and he had roughly sixty-five Heinkel 111s, fifty Junkers
88s and thirty-five Messerschmitt 110s with which to do it. The 110s
were far too few to escort a hundred and fifteen bombers, and had barely
the endurance to cross the North Sea in both directions.
Making the best of a bad job, he fitted them
with supplementary fuel-tanks; ordered them to fly without rear-gunners
to compensate for the added weight; sent them to Newcastle with the Heinkels;
and ordered the faster and more modern Junkers 88s to fly to Yorkshire
It was a desperate gamble, but it might conceivably
The RDF stations on the east coast picked
up the Heinkels and their escort when they were still far out to sea.
Their first estimate was that more than twenty aircraft were approaching,
but later they raised the figure to more than thirty, and finally to more
than fifty. The stations said, correctly, that the aircraft were
flying in three distinct formations.
Air Vice-Marshal R.E. Saul DFC commanding
No 13 Group, was less well known to the public than his colleagues to the
south, whose forces were in the thick of the fighting through-out the battle.
August 15 gave him his first chance of countering a big attack in daylight.
In spite of the enormous area he had to cover, he made such good use of
it that it also proved to be his last, for the Germans never repeated the
Saul's position at noon, when the Heinkels
of Kampfgeschwader 26 and the Messerschmitt 110s of Zerstorergeschwader
76 were first detected miles away over the North Sea, was that he had three
squadrons of Spitfires, one of Hurricanes and one of Blenheims in the two
sectors which covered the north of England. Of the remaining eight
squadrons which made up the resources of his group, four and a half were
far away in Northern Ireland, Shetland and the north of Scotland.
To supplement the five squadrons he had immediately at hand, he could
count only on two and a half squadrons of Hurricanes near the Firth of
Forth and a squadron of Defiants near the Clyde. The Blenheims were
no match even for long-range fighters, while the Defiants had suffered
crippling losses in their last encounter with the Germans and were at least
a hundred miles from any objective which Stumpff was likely to attack.
Saul began by sending one of the four single-seater
squadrons close at hand to meet the enemy well off the coast. At
the same time he brought down a squadron of Hurricanes from the Firth of
Forth to patrol the Tyneside - an almost unprecedented step. As the
threat became more imminent he added the remaining three single-seater
squadrons immediately available, keeping back only the Blenheims, the Defiants,
and a squadron and a half of Hurricanes near the Forth. By this time
correctly appreciating that he had the greater part of Stumpff's resources
on his front, he nevertheless responded to a call for reinforcement from
No 12 Group, on his southern flank, by parting with the Blenheims, his
only uncommitted squadron within reach. Like Brand (Air Vice-Marshal
Sir Q. Brand AOC of 10 Group) in face of Sperrle's threat on the 13th,
at least he ran little risk of being caught by Stumpff with his aircraft
on the ground.
Meanwhile, to seaward of the Farne Islands,
the Spitfires of No 72 Squadron from Acklington were closing with Stumpff's
escorted bombers at the rate of something like eight miles per minute.
In the absence of a squadron- leader, they were led by Flight-Lieutenant
Edward Graham, who thus stepped into the place of honour in one of the
most spectacularly successful air combats of the war.
Thirty miles off the coast, the squadron sighted
the enemy - a hundred aircraft to their eleven. As the RDF stations
had predicted, the Germans were flying in three formations - the bombers
ahead and the fighters in two waves stepped up to the rear. Misled by the
supplementary fuel tanks slung below the fighters, which looked like bombs,
Graham and his pilots took the nearer wave for Junkers 88s.
Stumpff's armada was so vast in comparison
with Graham's little force that he hesitated for a moment, uncertain at
what point and from what direction to attack it. Apparently unable
to bear the suspense, one of his pilots was asked whether he had seen the enemy.
With a slight stutter which was habitual, he replied " Of course I've seen
the b-b-b-bastards, I'm trying to w-w-w-work out what to do." The reply was to
became famous through-out Fighter Command.
He did not hesitate for long, The Spitfires
had had plenty of time to gain height during their long flight from the
coast, and were about three thousand feet above the enemy's mean height.
Making the most of his advantage and of what corresponded to the weather-gauge,
he decided to lead the squadron in a diving attack from up-sun, leaving
each pilot free to choose his own target. Two-thirds attacked bombers
or supposed bombers, the remaining third the second wave of fighters, correctly
identified as 110s.
The results were startling. Jettisoning
their external tanks, some of the 110s formed the usual defensive circle,
while others dived almost to sea level and were last seen heading east.
The bombers, less an indeterminate number destroyed by Graham's squadron,
then split into two formations, each accompanied by some of the remaining
fighters. One formation headed for Tyneside, apparently with the intention
of bombing Saul's sector station at Usworth; the rest turned south-east
towards two aerodromes at Linton on Ouse and Dishforth which they had been
ordered to attack.
The first formation, engaged successively
by the remaining squadron from Acklington, the Tyne guns and some of the
Hurricanes which had come south from Scotland, dropped most of their bombs
in the sea. The second, engaged by a squadron of Spitfires from Catterick,
a Hurricane squadron from Usworth and the Tees guns, dropped theirs almost
as ineffectively near Sunderland and Seaham Harbour. From first to
last Saul's fighters, backed by the guns of the 7th Anti-Aircraft Division
under Major-General R.B. Pargiter, destroyed eight Heinkels and seven 110s
without suffering a single casualty. It is known that in addition
to the enemy losses reported in this diary during this period, many German
aircraft got back to their bases with battle damage varying from a few
bullet holes to a total write-off on crash landing.
While these excitements were at their height,
the fifty Junkers 88s which made up the rest of Stumpff's bomber force
were speeding across the North Sea towards their objective in South Yorkshire,
a bomber aerodrome at Great Driffield. About a quarter of an hour
before the first shot was fired off the Farne Islands, warning was received
in the operations room of No 12 Group at Watnall that German aircraft were
approaching the front of the group's Church Fenton sector, but were still
a long way out to sea." .... Here the direct quotes from the story end,
but a resume of the rest of the action in the north, is that .... Air Vice-
Marshal Saul was even able to lend No 12 Groups AOC - Air Vice-Marshal
Leigh-Mallory - his squadron of Blenheims to help in the defence of the
airfield at Driffield which was bombed, as was Bridlington. The Blenheims
were lent even though Air Vice-Marshal Leigh-Mallory had squadrons nearer
to him available to fight, than Air Vice-Marshal Saul had at the beginning
of the action.
Luftflotte 5 was finished in the daylight
battle, apart from reconnaissance, and most of its bomber strength and
some of its fighters were transferred to Luftflotte 2, based in France,
towards the end of August.
An extract from a German airman's account
of the attack on Driffield airfield is given below, it is by Oberleutnant
Rudolf Kratz flying a Junkers Ju 88 of Stab/KG 30 stationed at Aalborg
in occupied Denmark and it is taken from the book 'The Lufwaffe in the
Battle of Britain' by Armand van Ishoven:
"The coast. The initial
point. No time left for thinking - there lay England, the lion's
den. But the eagles were going to attack the lion in his lair and
wound him grievously.
"Fighters to starboard..." Three specks overflew
us, disappeared to the rear, and after a diving turn, hung behind us."
"Your turn now". The words disappeared in the rattle of our machine guns.
In short bursts the volleys flew towards the first fighter. He turned
away and the second one took his place. This one's fire is ineffective
as well and both passed below and were shot at by our ventral gunner.
Like hornets they swooshed through our formation, the roundels on their
fuselage looking like eyes.
"Five fighters to port above." reported the
wireless operator calmly. "Dammit," the pilot said, but did not get agitated.
We kept on flying towards our target. Staring before us we tried
to locate the airfield amidst the ragged clouds.' "There, the field, below
"The target at last - the fighters were beginning
to be a real nuisance. The time had come now. I did not give
a single Pfennig for the life of those below - drop the HEs, away with
the blessing! The aircraft went into a dive, speed rapidly building
up, and the wind roared and howled around us. The hangars grew and grew.
They were still standing. The AA guns were firing away at us, but
they were too late.
'A jolt - the bombs were free, the steel bodies
out whistling down. Below all hell was let loose. Like an inferno,
steel hit steel, and stones. Bomb upon bomb exploded, destroying
and tearing apart what they hit. Hangar walls and roofs crumpled
like tin sheets, pieces flying through the air. Aircraft were shattered
by a hail of splinters. Barracks tumbled down, enormous smoke and
dust clouds rose like mushrooms. Here and there explosions and flames
shot up. The airfield and the hangars were already badly hit but
bombs kept falling from the bombers that followed us, kept raining down
in a horrible shower. Fire from exploding ammunition burst upwards
like torches. The English AA artillery had been eliminated, their firing
positions turned into craters.
"The sun shone into our cabin. The enemy
fighters had been got rid of. Below us lay the wide sea. How
beautiful the Earth can be. Hands loosened their grip on the machine guns.
What happened just a few minutes ago lay behind us and we relaxed.
The engines were running evenly, we were flying home. The airfield
didn't exist any more; that was the result."
Oberleutnant Kratz who wrote the above report
(from which the extract is taken) had joined the Reichswehr in 1934 and
had transferred to the Luftwaffe the following year. In 1937 he had
been trained in blind flying, while on Lufthansa routes, as did so many
Luftwaffe pilots at that time. It was a perfect camouflage.
Thirty-nine years after writing the report, he had become a dentist in
Bad Salzuflen and he remembered: 'I wrote the report for my own entertainment,
but it got in front of Oblt Loebel who gave it to a Kriegsberichter.
From there it found its way into the Jahrbuch of the Luftwaffe. Today
I find it too emphatic and bombastic. But then those times were filled
with heroism, the call of duty and big words.
Having read what I believe to be the whole
report and in view of the heavy losses incurred by KG30 on this day, I
find it surprising that no mention is made of German casualties in it whatsoever.
A Heinkel He 111H from 1/KG26, shot down during
a sortie to attack Middlesbrough, crashed into the sea at 13.45 off Druridge
Bay / Hemscott Hill, four German airmen brought ashore at Amble, part of
enemy aircraft found near Clifton railway crossing. The aircraft
Five Heinkel He 111Hs from 8/KG26 were lost
off the North-East coast during a sortie to Dishforth airfield. All
of the crews were listed as killed or missing, and the aircraft lost.
They were all presumed to have been shot down by RAF fighters.
A 6th Heinkel He 111H from 8/KG26 was also
shot down by the RAF and crashed into the North Sea. One crewman
was killed, the rest of the crew were rescued by a German Naval vessel
including an injured man.
A 7th Heinkel He 111H from 8/KG26 was shot
down by fighters on a sortie to bomb Dishforth aerodrome. It crashed
into the sea, at 14.00, 30 miles off Middlesbrough. The crew was
Two Junkers Ju 88Cs from I/KG30 failed to
return from a mission to bomb Driffield aerodrome, one of them was intercepted
and shot down at 13.30. Nothing is known about the attack on the
other. The crews and aircraft listed as lost.
A Junkers Ju 88A from 3/KG30 was shot down
whilst on a sortie over Flamborough Head , it crash-landed at 13.25 at
Hamilton Hill Farm, Barmston, near Bridlington. The crew were captured
unhurt. The aircraft a write-off.
A Junkers Ju 88 from 4/KG30 was shot down
whilst on a sortie to bomb Driffield aerodrome, It crashed and burnt out
at 13.30 at Hunmanby near Filey. The crew were all killed.
The aircraft a write-off.
Of three Junkers Ju 88s of III/KG30, one was
shot down and crashed into the sea, the four man NCO crew killed and the
aircraft lost - the second crash landed in Holland with one crewman injured
and the aircraft damaged but repairable - the third crashed on landing
at Aalborg-West following operations over the east coast of England and
an attack by RAF fighters. The crew were unhurt but the aircraft
was 75% damaged.
A Junkers Ju 88 from 7/KG30 was shot down
whilst on a mission to bomb Driffield aerodrome, it force landed near Hornby
at 13.30. One crewman was killed, the other three were captured.
The aircraft was a write-off.
Another Junkers Ju 88 from 7/KG30, briefed
to attack the airfield at Driffield was shot down by RAF fighters.
One of the crewmen listed as killed and the other three listed as missing.
The aircraft was a write-off.
A Messerschmitt Bf 110C from Stab/ZG76, last
seen in combat with RAF fighters, presumed shot down into the sea.
The crew listed as missing and the aircraft lost.
A Messerschmitt 110D from Stab I/ZG76, failed
to return from a sortie to the east coast of England off or near Newcastle.
Both crew and aircraft lost.
Another Messerschmitt 110D from Stab I/ZG76
piloted by Hauptmann Restemeyer, the Gruppenkommandeur of 1/ZG76 was killed
during combat with Spitfires of 72 Squadron, whilst on a sortie to the
east coast of England, the aircraft crashed into the sea off the Durham
coast. The other member of the crew, Hauptmann Hartwich was also
lost. Hauptmann Restemeyer gained fame when together with two other
Luftwaffe pilots, he had won first place in the International Alpine Rally
for the formation flying of military aircraft at the Zurich/Dubendorf flying
meet in 1937. The three of them were flying the then sensational
new Messerschmitt Bf 109s.
A Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 1/ZG76 was shot
down and crashed at Streatlam near Barnard Castle at 13.36. The aircraft
was destroyed, the crew were captured unhurt.
13.36.. Steathlam.. Enemy plane
crashed at Steathlam near to site of New Military Camp. Both occupants
of plane conveyed to Barnard Castle Police Station. When plane crashed
an explosion occurred and a workman on the site received slight injuries.
A Messerschmitt Bf 110D from Stab 2/ZG76 was
shot down whilst on escort duty for bombers attacking East Coast airfields.
It crashed into the sea off Northumberland at 13.00. One crewman
was captured, the other was missing.
Another Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 2/ZG76
was severely damaged by fighters during the action over the North Sea,
off the east coast, and crash landed at Esbjerg. One crew member
killed and one wounded, the aircraft a write-off.
A Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 3/ZG76 was shot
down into the sea during a sortie off the Northumberland coast. This
is possibly the aircraft that at 13.00 crashed into the sea, three miles
from Newbiggin, one mile east of Cambois. Both crew members and the
aircraft were lost.
Another Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 3/ZG76
returned to base after an attack by RAF fighters off the English east coast.
One crewman was wounded and the aircraft repairable.
A 3rd Messerschmitt Bf 110D from 3/ZG76 failed
to return from an operational sortie to the English east coast, believed
shot down into the sea. The crew listed as missing and the aircraft
A Hurricane from 79 Squadron based at Acklington
airfield in Northumberland returned to base when damaged in combat with
enemy aircraft off the North-East coast at 13.00. The pilot was unhurt
and the aircraft was repairable.
A Blenheim from 219 Squadron based at Catterick
airfield in Yorkshire was hit by return fire from enemy aircraft engaged
off Scarborough at 14.00, it crash-landed at Driffield. Sergeant
O.E. Dupee was wounded in the right arm, Sergeant T.H. Banister was unhurt,
the aircraft was damaged but repairable.
The following three Hurricanes from 605 Squadron
were based at Drem, near Edinburgh, but were called up by Air Vice-Marshal
Saul to assist in the defence of Tyneside which was undergoing a heavy
enemy air attack at the time.
1st: Force landed one mile from Usworth following
combat off the East coast at 14.10. The pilot, C.W. Passy was unhurt
but the aircraft was a write-off.
2nd: Was hit by return fire from He 111s off
Newcastle at 14.20. The pilot, Flight Lieutenant A.A. McKellar, who was
unhurt managed to fly the slightly damaged aircraft back to base.
3rd: Force landed near Hart Railway Station,
near West Hartlepool. Pilot Officer K.S. Law was badly injured and was
admitted to West Hartlepool Hospital. The aircraft was damaged but
A Hurricane from 616 Squadron based at Leconfield
airfield near Beverley in Yorkshire, landed heavily after a routine practice
flight at 17.35, wrecking the undercarriage, which was repairable.
The pilot, Pilot Officer W.L.B. Walker was unhurt.
A Hurricane from 302 Squadron based at Leconfield
airfield near Beverley in Yorkshire, caught fire on a training flight and
crashed attempting an emergency landing at Wheel. Pilot Officer Glowczynski
was admitted to Beverley Hospital, seriously burned. The aircraft
was a write-off.
Here are some of the many incident reports
of this momentous day - it must be remembered that the casualty figures
quoted in these reports may differ from the final number because the document
in question may have been the first of many concerning the same incident,
or an injured person may have died in hospital some days later, they would
be included in the final summary compiled at a later date:-
Bombs were reported to have been dropped on
Tynemouth in Northumberland, Sunderland, Cockfield, High Etherley, Toft
Hill, Woodside, Witton Park, Quarrington Hill, Cassop, Dawdon, Hawthorn,
Easington Colliery, Thornley, and Cleadon all in Co Durham.
Casualties included one person killed at Barnard
Castle, one at Bishop Auckland, one at Bridlington, one at Driffield,
one at Durham, eleven at Easington, one at Scarborough, eleven at
Seaham and four at Sunderland.
Northumberland.. Tynemouth Borough..
Five HE just below the Low Water Mark between Sharpness Point and the castle,
and one just south of the North Pier. Some damage reported.
13.40.. Sunderland.. Newcastle
Road - Denbigh Avenue - Sea Road - Tyzack's Yard bombed. Casualties:-
four killed, three seriously and eight slightly injured.
12.47-13.30.. Co Durham.. Cockfield..
Twenty-eight HEs dropped in Cockfield district between Gibbsneese and Summerson's
Quarry. 170 windows in Cockfield were broken and 30 ceilings came
down. A byre, a garage, and a small wooden tool shed were damaged.
Co Durham.. High Etherley, Toft Hill,
Woodside and California.. Approximately sixty HEs and one hundred IBs were
dropped in this district. At High Etherley forty bombs were dropped;
one killed a boy and injured another person. The other bombs dropped
in fields where sheep and a number of cattle were injured. At California,
Witton Park, one man was killed and four persons injured.
13.30.. Co Durham.. Quarrington
Hill and Cassop.. Fifty to sixty-eight enemy planes seen flying at
great height over the Quarrington Hill and Cassop Village districts.
Approximately sixty HEs and a hundred IBs were dropped. A dairy at
Cassop, the wall of a sewerage bed at Cassop Vale, a water main and the
wall of a Churchyard at Quarrington Hill were damaged. IBs slightly
damaged four houses and a haystack was set on fire. No serious damage.
Co Durham.. Dawdon.. Eleven dead
and forty injured.. Thirty HEs dropped. In three adjoining
streets in the village, eight houses were demolished and seventeen seriously
damaged, most of the deaths occurred in Ilchester Street.
Co Durham.. Hawthorn.. A direct
hit was made on an occupied house and a woman who was trapped in the house
has not been found. Another person was killed while riding a horse.
An electric cable damaged at Hawthorn and the A.19 blocked N of the junction
with the South Hetton road. An enemy plane is reported to have been
shot down into the sea off the coast at Ryhope, but no trace of the survivors
or the plane has been found.
Co Durham.. Easington Colliery..
Easington Colliery had approximately fifty houses damaged, twelve people
were killed, most of the deaths occurring in Station Road, thirty people
were injured. Little Thorpe Hospital, Easington also suffered damage
and ten persons were injured.
Co Durham.. Thornley.. One dead
and two injured.. A number of cattle were also killed. Telephone
cables were damaged near the Half-Way House, Thornley. Five roads
blocked, all with the exception of the main road at Haswell Plough are
open to traffic.
12.47-13.30.. Co Durham.. Cleadon..
Approximately forty-eight HEs and twenty IBs were dropped. Seven
persons were injured. Five houses extensively damaged and twenty-five
houses slightly damaged in this district. A bull was killed on Moor
Farm, Cleadon, and cow injured. Electric cables damaged and the road B.1299,
from its junction with Underhill Road, Cleadon was temporarily blocked.
Co Durham.. Washington.. A Hurricane
Fighter made a forced landing at Low Barmston Farm. Pilot did not
sustain injury - RAF Usworth informed.
'SS Brixton' (1,557t) cargo ship, Sunderland
to London with a cargo of coal was sunk by a mine off Aldeburgh.
Part of enemy aircraft found near Clifton
Railway Crossing [NZ2182].